Plasmonic sensor realized on metal-insulator-metal waveguide configuration for refractive index detection




In this work, a plasmonic sensor established on metal-insulator-metal waveguide configuration is proposed and numerically investigated for biosensing applications. The spectral and sensing characteristics of the device are examined via the two-dimensional finite element method. Sensitivity (Sbulk) and figure of merit (FOM) are two important parameters that are considered to determine the device performance. The Sbulk of the device is considered as a ratio between the change in resonance wavelength and change in the ambient refractive index. Whereas FOM is the ratio of Sbulk to full width at half maximum. The Sbulk and FOM offered by the device are ~825.7 nm/RIU and ~13.14, respectively. This work can provide a guideline for the realization of highly sensitive plasmonic sensing devices.

Full Text: PDF

  1. N.L. Kazanskiy, S.N. Khonina, M.A. Butt, "Plasmonic sensors based on Metal-insulator-metal waveguides for refractive index sensing applications: A brief review", Physica E: Low-dimensional systems and Nanostructures 117, 113798 (2020). CrossRef
  2. D. Xiang, W. Li, "MIM plasmonic waveguide splitter with tooth-shaped structures", Journal of Modern Optics 61, 222-226 (2014). CrossRef
  3. M.A. Butt, S.N. Khonina, N.L. Kazanskiy, "Ultra-short lossless plasmonic power splitter design based on metal–insulator–metal waveguide", Laser Physics 30, 016201 (2020). CrossRef
  4. J. Park, S. Lee, B. Lee, "Polarization Singularities in the Metal-Insulator-Metal Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide", IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 46, 1577-1581 (2010). CrossRef
  5. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. V. Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y-S. Oei, R. Notzel, C-Z. Ning, M. K. Smit, "Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides", Optics Express 17, 11107-11112 (2009). CrossRef
  6. A. Udupi, S. K. Madhava, "Plasmonic Coupler and Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Based on Nano-Groove-Arrays", Plasmonics 16, 1685-1692 (2021). CrossRef
  7. Y-F. C. Chau, C-T. C. Chao, H-P. Chiang, "Ultra-broad bandgap metal-insulator-metal waveguide filter with symmetrical stubs and defects", Results in Physics 17, 103116 (2020). CrossRef
  8. H. Bahri, S. Mouetsi, A. Hocini, H.B. Salah, "A high sensitive sensor using MIM waveguide coupled with a rectangular cavity with Fano resonance", Optical and Quantum Electronics 53, 332 (2021). CrossRef
  9. S.N. Khonina, N.L. Kazanskiy, M.A. Butt, A. Kazmierczak, R. Piramidowicz, "Plasmonic sensor based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide square ring cavity filled with functional material for the detection of CO2 gas", Optics Express 29, 16584 (2021). CrossRef
  10. M.A. Butt, S.N. Khonina, N.L. Kazanskiy, "Plasmonics: A Necessity in the Field of Sensing-A Review (Invited)", Fiber and Integrated Optics 40, 14-47 (2021). CrossRef
  11. M.A. Butt, A. Kazmierczak, N.L. Kazanskiy, S.N. Khonina, "Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide-Based Racetrack Integrated Circular Cavity for Refractive Index Sensing Application", Electronics 10, 1419 (2021). CrossRef
  12. N.L. Kazanskiy, S.N. Khonina, M.A. Butt, A. Kazmierczak, R. Piramidowicz, "A Numerical Investigation of a Plasmonic Sensor Based on a Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide for Simultaneous Detection of Biological Analytes and Ambient Temperature", Nanomaterials 11, 2551 (2021). CrossRef
  13. I. Tathfif, A.A. Yaseer, K.S. Rashid, R.H. Sagor, "Metal-insulator-metal waveguide-based optical pressure sensor embedded with arrays of silver nanorods", Optics Express 29, 32365-32376 (2021). CrossRef
  14. P.D. Sia, "Overview of Drude-Lorentz type models and their applications", Nanoscale Syst. Math. Model. Theory Appl. 3, 1-13 (2014) CrossRef
  15. M.A. Butt, N.L. Kazanskiy, "Nanoblocks embedded in L-shaped nanocavity of a plasmonic sensor for best sensor performance", Optica Applicata LI, 109-120 (2021). CrossRef
  16. S. Khani, M. Hayati, "An ultra-high sensitive plasmonic refractive index sensor using an elliptical resonator and MIM waveguide", Superlattices and Microstructures 156, 106970 (2021). CrossRef
  17. F. Chen, J. Li, "Refractive index and temperature sensing based on defect resonator coupled with a MIM waveguide", Modern Physics Letters B 33, 1950017 (2019). CrossRef
  18. M. Rahmatiyar, M. Danaie, M. Afsahi, "Employment of cascaded coupled resonators for resolution enhancement in plasmonic refractive index sensors", Optical and Quantum Electronics 52, 153 (2020). CrossRef
  19. M.A. Butt, S.N. Khonina, N.L. Kazanskiy, "A multichannel metallic dual nano-wall square split-ring resonator: design analysis and applications", Laser Physics Letters 16, 126201 (2019). CrossRef

Author Biography

Muhammad Ali Butt, Samara National Research University, Russia Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Muhammad Ali Butt (b. 1985) received his PhD degree in Material Sciences from Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain in year 2015. In 2018, he worked at Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland as a Research Assistant Professor. In 2013, he made a research stay at Optoelectronic research Centre (ORC), University of Southampton, England. Currently he works as a Senior Scientist at Samara National Research University, Russia. Research interests are optical waveguides, plasmonic sensors, diffractive optics, and optical filters. E-mail:




How to Cite

M. A. Butt, “Plasmonic sensor realized on metal-insulator-metal waveguide configuration for refractive index detection”, Photonics Lett. Pol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–3, Mar. 2022.