All Optical Microwave Frequency Division by 2<sup>n</sup>


  • Taraprasad Chattopadhyay Visva-Bharati University
  • Prosenjit Bhattacharyya Visva-Bharati University
  • Chiranjib Ghosh Visva-Bharati University



This paper presents the concept and analysis of an all optical divide-by-2n microwave frequency divider. It uses a Mach-Zehnder light intensity modulator with 100% modulation IM index which is utilized to generate a subharmonic optical sideband. This optical sideband when mixed with the optical carrier in a photodiode produces a difference frequency signal which is a sub-harmonic (divided-by-2) of the primary modulation frequency. This all optical circuit is simple, novel and low noise in character.

Full Text: PDF

  1. A.E. Kelly, R.J. Manning, A.J. Poustie, K.J. Blow, "All-optical clock division at 10 and 20 GHz in a semiconductor optical amplifier based nonlinear loop mirror", Electron. Lett. 34, 1337 (1998). CrossRef
  2. H.J. Lee, H.G. Kim, "Polarization-independent all-optical clock division using a semiconductor optical amplifier/grating filter switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(4), 469 (1999). CrossRef
  3. R.J. Manning, I.D. Phillips, A.D. Ellis, A.E. Kelly, A.J. Poustie, K.J. Blow, "All-optical clock division at 40 GHz using semiconductor optical amplifier based nonlinear interferometer", Electron. Lett. 35, 827 (1999). CrossRef
  4. H. Yokoyama, Y. Hashimoto, H. Kurita, I. Ogura, "Two-stage all-optical subharmonic clock recovery using modelocked semiconductor lasers", Electron. Lett. 36, 1577 (2000). CrossRef
  5. T. Chattopadhyay, P. Bhattacharyya, S. Das, Proc. of 5th International Conference on Computers and Devices for Communication (CODEC-2012), Kolkata, India (2012).
  6. P. Bhattacharyya, "All-optical microwave frequency division and multiplication by synchronized semiconductor lasers", Opt. Comm. 319, 188 (2014). CrossRef
  7. W.D. Cornish, "Microwave frequency dividers: devices and applications", IEEE Proc. Communications, Radar and Signal Processing 129, 208 (1982). CrossRef
  8. S-C. Chan, J-M. Liu, "Microwave Frequency Division and Multiplication Using an Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 41, 1142 (2005). CrossRef
  9. K.K. Chow, C. Shu, Y.M. Yaug, H.F. Liu, "Optical control of period doubling in a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode and its application in all-optical clock division", Proc. IEEE Optoelectronics 150, 239 (2003). CrossRef
  10. M. Bhattacharya, A.K. Saw, T. Chattopadhyay, "Millimeter-wave generation through phase-locking of two modulation sidebands of a pair of laser diodes", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 16(2), 596 (2004). CrossRef
  11. M. Bhattacharya, B. Sarkar, T. Chattopadhyay, "Optical generation of millimeter and submillimeter-waves through optical side-band injection locking of semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 1611 (2002). CrossRef
  12. T.B. Simpson, J.M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, "Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers", IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 7(7), 709 (1995). CrossRef
  13. L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, C.J. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory and Tech. 54, 2 (2006). CrossRef
  14. M.C. Cheng, Y.C. Chi, C.T. Tsai, G.R. Lin, "Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission", Opt. Expr. 22(13), 15724 (2014) CrossRef
  15. X. Jin, B.Y. Tarng, S.L. Chuang, Proc. ISDRS, Collage Park, MD, USA (2007).
  16. T. Chattopadhyay, P. Bhattacharyya, "A scheme for low noise optical pulse generation", J. Opt., 42 (2), 148 (2013). CrossRef
  17. M. Bhattacharyya, T. Chattopadhyay, "An optical limiter-discriminator using synchronized laser diodes", J. Opt. A: Pure and Appl. Opt. 1, 626 (1999) CrossRef




How to Cite

T. Chattopadhyay, P. Bhattacharyya, and C. Ghosh, “All Optical Microwave Frequency Division by 2<sup>n</sup>”;, Photonics Lett. Pol., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. pp. 87–89, Sep. 2015.