Technological challenges in the development of silica-titania platform for integrated optics


  • Ezgi Kilicaslan Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Muhammad Ali Butt Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Andrzej Kazmierczak Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Ryszard Piramidowicz Warsaw University of Technology, Poland



This short report discusses the technological challenges of silica-titania (SiO2:TiO2) thin film deposited via a simple, cost-effective sol-gel process and dip-coating method. Sol-gel is a versatile method for producing materials by using a solution (sol) that undergoes a gelation process to form a solid network (gel). This process involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions of precursor molecules. Although the sol-gel application is simple and economical, it has some limitations. The aging of sol-gel materials causes a change in the properties and structure of a sol-gel system over time, causing a deterioration in the final properties of the waveguide thin films. Nanoimprint lithography is a cost-effective patterning technique that is only effective when fresh sol is used; otherwise, it leads to the formation of defective waveguide structures.

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Author Biography

Muhammad Ali Butt, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Muhammad Ali Butt (b. 1985) received his PhD degree in Material Sciences from Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain in year 2015. In 2018, he worked at Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland as a Research Assistant Professor. In 2013, he made a research stay at Optoelectronic research Centre (ORC), University of Southampton, England. Currently he works as a Senior Scientist at Samara National Research University, Russia. Research interests are optical waveguides, plasmonic sensors, diffractive optics, and optical filters. E-mail:




How to Cite

E. Kilicaslan, M. A. Butt, A. Kazmierczak, and R. Piramidowicz, “Technological challenges in the development of silica-titania platform for integrated optics”, Photonics Lett. Pol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 42–44, Sep. 2023.